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Transactions of the American Foundrymen's Society V 72 P 65-72, 1964 (8 p)
The thermal behavior of cast iron and anodized aluminum molds during solidification of aluminum- 4.5 per cent copper and aluminum-10 per cent magnesium, long freezing range alloy, test castings have been studied. It is found that: a) For the casting and mold wall thickness considered (1) test castings solidify akin to a skin forming alloy, (2) the solidification constant increases with the increase in the mold wall thickness and (3) solidification time of test castings is approximately proportional to square of volume/surface area ratio. b) In general, start of air gap formation takes place earlier in cast iron mold compared to anodized aluminum. c) The maximum interface temperature attained in a just and over sufficient mold is dependent upon (1) start of air gap formation, and (2) percentage of solids formed prior to air gap formation. d) The maximum interface temperature attained in an under sufficient mold is primarily influenced by the start of air gap formation time. e) Heat capacity effect on the interface temperature is reflected upon only at later stages of freezing.

The Development of Surface Engineered Coating Systems for Aluminum Pressure Die Casting Dies: Optimization of the Cr-Al-N Intermediate Layer Towards a ‘Smart Die Coating’ (20082990)
110th Metalcasting Congress Die Materials & Surface Treatment Session 4 April 18-21, 2006 Columbus, OH
The paper will present the latest progress in the ongoing research program of developing the design of a ‘smart’ die coating design for dies used in aluminum pressure die casting. In this study, detailed research on the intermediate layer (CrAlN) and the piezoelectric ‘smart’ layer (AlN) preparation by the state-of-art pulsed closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering (PCFUBMS) will be presented. The ‘smart’ coating system will be incorporate an embedded piezoelectric thin film network within the overall engineered coating system that will indicate the initiation of microcracking and crack propagation in die components and die coatings by monitoring the stresses generated in the die.

The New Al Scan Analyser: Easy-To-Use, Reliable, On-Line Measurement of Hydrogen in Liquid Aluminum Alloys (20082798)
Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference of Molten Aluminum Processing Nov 6-7, 1989 P20-1 to 20-21
The newly developed Al Scan online hydrogen analysis technique is presented; it is shown to be a reliable, simple-to-use and rapid method to measure dissolved hydrogen prior to casting which meets the needs of foundries, especially those in casting products with demanding requirements. It is fully automated, operated easily by normal production personnel and makes use of a rugged and inexpensive immersible probe. Specific application results are presented for both wrought and foundry alloys.

Thermodynamic Modeling and Experimental Investigation of the Magnesium-Aluminum-Strontium-Calcium System (20082840)
Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Light Metals Technology Sept 24-26 2007 Quebec, Canada P53-57
The phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of the Mg-Al-Sr-Ca system were analyzed in this work and a thermodynamic description of the system was obtained using a computerized optimization procedure. The available thermodynamic and phase diagram data were critically assessed for all the binary and ternary sub-systems. Optimized thermodynamic properties of the binary systems were then used to construct a database and calculate the ternary phase diagrams. The phase equilibria in the Mg-Al-Sr and Mg-Al-Ca systems were investigated experimentally by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quantitative electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). A new ternary solid solution, MgxAl4xSr, was observed in the Mg-Al-Sr system, which is due to the substitution of Al by Mg atoms in the Al4Sr compound. Maximum solubilities of 21.3 at.% Al in Mg17Sr2 and 11.4 at.% Al in Mg were observed. It was also noticed that Mg38Sr9 dissolved 12.5 at.% Al, In the Mg-Al-Ca ternary system, one of the invariant transformation, predicted by thermodynamic modeling, was verified experimentally and found to occur at 512°C with composition close to 10.8 at.% Ca, 79.5 at.% Mg ad 9.7 at.% Al. Large solid solubility of Al in Mg2Ca was observed. The Mg-Ca-Sr and Al-Ca-Sr phase diagrams were also calculated from the established database for the Mg-Al-Ca-Sr system.

AFS Transactions 1973, p. 475-481
Experiments carried out to study solidification behavior and feeding of LM 10 alloy test castings indicate: In cylindrical and plate shaped castings, a linear relationship exists between log of solidification time and log of (V/SA) ratio. For a given (V/SA) ratio, solidification time of a plate-shaped casting is higher than that of the cylindrical casting. When an inadequate feeder is used in combination with a casting, porosity is maximum at the midregion of the casting. An increase in feeder size shifts the region of maximum porosity towards the feeder and the level of maximum porosity decreases. Further increase in feeder size tends to make the porosity level uniformly low along the length of the casting.

AFS TRANSACTIONS 1970, p. 277-280 MODERN CASTING (Oct. 1970)
The measurement of H2 in A1 melts has been a practical problem for the foundryman for many years. The value of a quantitative measurement of the gas content of a melt before it is poured to make castings is a matter of economic concern and a number of test methods have been suggested in the past. One of these is based upon the observed density of a specially designed test sample which has been solidified in a partial vacuum. This basic method has been used in the authors' foundry for the past 10 years. During this time, a number of modifications to the original test procedure have been made. these were the result of the practical realities of the production foundry. The paper reviews the pertinent foundry literature, describes the test as it is currently being used and illustrates how the quantitative, indicated gas test results can be correlated with the occurrence of gas porosity or localized shrinkage in specific castings. Radiographs of production castings are presented to demonstrate that gas test indications do serve to predict the results of subsequent radiographic inspection.

Phase Formation in Multicomponent Monotectic Aluminum Alloys (20082841)
Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Light Metals Technology Sept 24-26 2007 Quebec, Canada P58-59
A classification of monotectic Al-alloys is presented briefly. For the ternary systems Al-Bi-Zn and Al-Cu-Sn calculated liquidus surfaces are shown.

AFS Transactions 1969, p. 192-197 Modern Casting (Oct. 1969), p. 192-197
A study of the strength characteristics of thin-section aluminum sand castings was conducted. A special test pattern was designed which contained 6 small test plates disposed around a central hub. The plate thicknesses covered a nominal range from 0.040 to 0.200 in. thick. The castings were counter-gravity poured using a previously described apparatus and data was collected on magnesium-silicide alloys, as well as compositions which are representative of the Al-Cu, Al-Mg and Al-Mg-Zn class of alloys. It was found that of the alloys tested, the ones most suitable for thin-section castings were A356 and 355. The most important conclusions are that the properties of thin-section A356 alloy castings are such that the strength and ductility levels can generally meet the requirements for premium quality castings as defined in Military Specification MIL-A-21180-C.

AFS Transactions 1972, p. 269-272
Certain process recommendations for melting white iron suggest that residual A1 of 0.01-0.015% be held in the molten iron to prevent problems of slag, gas hole and pinhole defects in castings. The authors' experiences with this recommended process in air furnace and induction melting of white iron for malleable castings production are reported in this paper. The effect of residual A1 on ladles and furnace lining as well as the prevention of defects is presented and related to thermochemical principles.

Transactions of the American Foundrymen's Society V 71 P 17-25, 1963 (9 p)
Thermal and structural studies of Al-Si eutectic alloys, with and without additions of N a and P, have shown that the mechanism of solidification a nd the structural features of Si crystals in the refined eutectic are the same, irrespective of its production either by rapid cooling rate or by additions of Na. A theory has been put forward to explain silicon particle refinement in terms of their growth rate.

1–10 of about 3180 matches for aluminum or al
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